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How Kidney Treatment Works from Beginning to End | Blog

Anatomy

Kidneys are two complex shaped organs which are present below the rib cage on each side of the spine. Each of them is about the size of a fist. They measure around 4.5 inches in length and weigh around 4-6 ounces. It forms around 0.5 percent of the entire body weight. Each one of them consists of at least 1 million and up to 2 million nephrons. Though they are two in number, one of them is capable of doing the job that is performed by two kidneys together.

Function

They perform various different crucial functions such as –

Maintaining overall fluid balance.

Filtering and regulating minerals from the blood.

Filtering waste materials from food, medications and toxic substances.

Creation of hormones which help in producing red blood cells, promote bone health and regulate blood pressure.

Causes of Kidney Disease

Poor care and genetics can cause a wide range of health problems. Some of the causes are –

Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of end stage disease and is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Uncontrolled blood pressure can cause arteries around the kidneys to narrow, weaken or harden.

Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney’s filtering units.

Interstitial nephritis is the inflammation of kidney’s tubules and surrounding structures.

Vesicoureteral reflux which is a condition that causes urine to back up into your kidneys.

Recurrent infection also known as pyelonephritis.

Symptoms

Nausea which is accompanied with vomiting.

There is loss of appetite.

Feeling of weakness and fatigue.

Problem is getting regular sleep.

Frequent urination.

Decrease in mental sharpness.

More frequent cramps and muscle twitches.

Swelling of feet as well as ankles.

In case of fluid builp up around the linings of the heart causes chest pain.

Hypertension leading to high blood pressure which is difficult to control.

Conditions

Chronic Disease – it is the progressive and irreversible destruction of the kidneys in which it is not able to perform its desired function.

Kidney Failure – It occurs when the kidneys lose their ability to filter waste from your blood. It can be due to different reasons such as toxic exposure, certain acute and chronic diseases, severe dehydration and kidney trauma.

Stones – they are small and hard deposits of minerals and salts that form inside. They are one of the most painful medical conditions. Some of the different types of stones are calcium, uric acid, struvite, cystine etc.

Polycystic Disease – it is an inherited disorder which causes fluid filled cysts to form in the kidneys. There are three types of polycystic disease –autosomnal dominant, autosomnal recessive and acquired cystic.

Urinary tract infections (UTI) – UTI is an infection which is caused by microbes. These are organisms which are too small to be viewed by naked eye.

Cysts – It is a fluid filled sac that grows in the kidneys. You may have it in one or both of them. They have thin walls and contain water like fluid.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is the first step that should be taken in the road to treatment. You may need the following tests and procedures –

Blood Tests – blood tests are done to see the level of waste products such as creatinine and urea.

Urine Tests – a sample of your urine may reveal abnormalities that point to chronic disease and identify the cause.

Imaging Tests – Ultrasound is the most common imaging test done. Kidney’s structure and size are used in some cases.

Removing a sample of kidney tissue with the help of biopsy. The biopsy sample is sent to a lab for testing which determines what is wrong with the kidney.

Treatment

Medications

Before going for any invasive and complex treatment methods, medications are given first. Although medicine cannot reverse chronic kidney disease, it is used to help treat symptoms and complications and to further slow kidney damage. High blood pressure medications are given to keep it in check.

Common blood pressure medicines include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, Beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, direct renin inhibitors, diuretics etc. Medications are also given to lower cholesterol levels, treat anemia, reduce swelling and protect your bones.

Dialysis

Dialysis is the substitute for many of the normal functions of the kidneys. It is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in people whose kidneys have lost the ability to perform this function. There are two main types of dialysis – Haemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis.

In Haemodialysis, blood is directed into an external machine where it is filtered before being returned to the body. In peritoneal dialysis, fluid is pumped into the space inside the abdomen to draw out waste products from the blood passing through the vessels lining inside of the abdomen.

Transplant

Kidney Transplantation is the surgical procedure which is used in end stage failure. Healthy kidney from a live or deceased donor is taken and transplanted into a person whose kidneys no longer function properly. Polycystic disease, uncontrolled blood pressure and diabetes are some of the reasons.

In this procedure, you are first given anesthesia. The surgeon makes an incision and places the new kidney in the lower abdomen. Your older kidneys are removed if they are causing complications. The blood vessels of the new one are attached to blood vessels in the lower part of your abdomen just above one of the legs and the new kidney’s ureter is connected to the bladder.

Tags: Eternal hospital, kidney treatment, kidney transplant, chronic disease, kidney failure, olycystic disease, kidney stones, polycystic disease, urinary tract infections