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Diabetes, or Diabetes mellitus, is a common metabolic disease, marked by high blood sugar levels in the body. The sugar present in our body is converted into energy by a special hormone, insulin. In patients suffering from diabetes, their body is either not able to generate enough insulin or is not able to use the generated insulin properly. 
Diabetes is further categorised into the following types:

  • Type 1 Diabetes - Accounting for nearly 10 per cent of the total cases of diabetes, it is an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system of the patient starts attacking the pancreas, thereby affecting its ability to produce insulin. 
  • Type 2 diabetes - It is marked by excessive buildup of sugar in the body due to the inability of the insulin hormone to carry out its functions efficiently. The body of the patient becomes resistant to insulin and the person is said to develop insulin resistance. 
  • Prediabetes - It is marked by high blood sugar levels in the body before the patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. If not managed properly, this can result in the latter. 
  • Gestational diabetes - This is only experienced by women and is marked by high blood sugar levels in the body during pregnancy. The condition is triggered by insulin blocking hormones that are produced by the placenta. 

Symptoms 
Various symptoms associated with diabetes include:

  • Excessive thirst and hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Blurring of vision
  • Extreme fatigue and weakness
  • Delayed healing of sores and wounds
  • Men with diabetes may also experience decreased sex drive, loss of muscle strength and erectile dysfunction. 
  • Women with diabetes often complain of urinary tract infections and yeast infections. 

Causes 
The exact cause of Type 1 Diabetes is not known yet, it is believed that genes may have a role to play in it. The immune system of the patient may also be triggered by a viral infection. 
Type 2 diabetes is triggered by genetic as well as lifestyle factors. The condition usually affects people who are overweight or obese or have a family history of type 2 diabetes. 
Gestational diabetes is triggered by hormonal changes, which are very common during pregnancy. The hormones generated by the placenta can lead to insulin resistance, thereby increasing the blood sugar levels in your body. 

Risk factors
Type 1 Diabetes primarily affects small children and teenagers, who have a family history of the condition. 

You are more likely to get Type 2 Diabetes if:

  • You are overweight or obese 
  • You are 45 years old or more
  • You have a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • You resort to a stagnant lifestyle
  • You have a personal history of gestational diabetes
  • You have prediabetes
  • You have underlying medical conditions like high blood pressure, cholesterol and high triglycerides

Your risk of getting gestational diabetes are higher if:

  • You are overweight or obese
  • You are 25 years old or above
  • You have a history of gestational diabetes in a past pregnancy
  • You have a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • You have Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Treatment 

  • Type 1 Diabetes is usually managed by giving insulin shots. These are usually categorised into four different types - Rapid-acting insulin, short-acting insulin, intermediate-acting insulin and long-acting insulin. 
  • Type 2 diabetes can be managed by healthy dietary changes, an active lifestyle and certain medications that are to be taken on a daily basis. 
  • Gestational diabetes calls for the need of regular monitoring. You will be recommended to make healthy lifestyle changes, along with regular doses of insulin. 

Why Eternal Hospital?
At Eternal Hospital, we have a highly qualified and dedicated team of experts who are always committed to providing the latest and most advanced medical care to all our patients. Being a trusted name in healthcare, we act compassionately while ensuring confidentiality to those who need it. We have set high standards in patient-centric premium care along with outstanding patient safety and exceptional maintenance in a timely manner. We adhere to the use of up to the minute innovations to offer state-of-the-art treatments to our patients with unparalleled results.
 

Meet Our Team

Dr. R S Khedar

Director- Internal Medicine & Critical Care, Medical Director

Dr. Sailesh Lodha

HOD & Sr. Consultant- Endocrinology

Dr. Alok Mathur

Senior Consultant & Coordinator - Internal Medicine &
Director - Preventive Cardiology

Dr. Deepak Chand Gupta

Consultant – Endocrinology

Dr. Jugal Bihari Gupta

Senior Consultant - Internal Medicine & Director Clinical Research

Dr. Rajeev Gupta

Chairman - Preventive Cardiology, General Medicine, Research & Academics & Chairman - Medical Sciences

Dr. Yogendra Singh

Consultant - Internal Medicine