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Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, which hinders normal brain activity, resulting in seizures or brief periods of abnormal behaviour. The problem can affect both males, as well as females, however, the symptoms may vary from person to person. While some people may experience loss of awareness, others may persistently twitch their upper or lower limbs. Having a single serial does not imply that the patient has epilepsy and, at least two unprovoked seizures are required to confirm the diagnosis. 
The seizures can be broadly classified into two types - focal seizures and generalized seizures. 
Focal seizures - These are said to happen when abnormal brain activities originate from a particular part of the brain. These are further divided into two types:

  • Focal seizures without loss of consciousness
  • Focal seizures with impaired awareness

General seizures - These are set to happen when all the parts of the brain are involved in generating abnormal brain activity. These are further divided into the following six types:

  • Absence seizures
  • Tonic seizures
  • Atonic seizures
  • Clonic seizures
  • Myoclonic seizures
  • Tonic-clonic seizures

Symptoms 
Epilepsy is triggered by abnormal brain activity, which can drastically impact the brain coordinates, resulting in the following symptoms:

  • Staring spell
  • Temporary chaos and confusion
  • Uncontrollable movements or jerks of the upper and lower limbs
  • Brief loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Fear and anxiety 

Risk factors 
Various factors that may put you at a higher risk of developing epilepsy include:

  • Age - The disorder is more common in small children and older adults
  • Family history - The risks are high for those who have a family history of epilepsy
  • Head injuries - Severe head injuries can also increase the risks of epilepsy
  • Dementia - It is one of the common risk factors for epilepsy in older adults
  • Brain infection - Infections that directly or indirectly involve the brain or the spinal cord, may also elevate the risks of epilepsy. 
  • Cerebrovascular diseases - Vascular diseases such as stroke can severely damage the brain cells, putting you at a higher risk of developing epilepsy. 

Diagnosis 
Doctors may initially recommend some neurological exams to evaluate the patient's behaviour, motor abilities and mental function. This may be followed by a simple blood test to look for the signs of infection. 
In order to detect the brain abnormalities, the following test may be recommended:

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) 
  • High-density EEG
  • CT (Computerized tomography) scan
  • MRI ( Magnetic resonance imaging) 
  • fMRI ( functional Magnetic resonance imaging) 
  • PET (Positron emission tomography) 
  • SPECT ( Single Photon emission computerized tomography) 

Treatment 
In the majority of the cases, procedures can be easily managed with the help of anti-seizure medication, also known as antiepileptic medication. Surgery is usually recommended in extreme cases. Therapeutic procedures like vagus nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation may also be recommended. 

Why Eternal Hospital?
At Eternal Hospital, we have a highly qualified and dedicated team of experts who are always committed to providing the latest and most advanced medical care to all our patients. Being a trusted name in healthcare, we act compassionately while ensuring confidentiality to those who need it. We have set high standards in patient-centric premium care along with outstanding patient safety and exceptional maintenance in a timely manner. We adhere to the use of up to the minute innovations to offer state-of-the-art treatments to our patients with unparalleled results.

Meet Our Team

Dr. Madan Mohan Gupta

Consultant - Interventional Neuro Radiology

Dr. Surendra Khosya

Senior Consultant - Neurology