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Congenital anomalies are also referred to as birth defects. It can be defined as the structural and functional anomalies that occur during pre birth. Examples include cleft lip and spina bifida.  It can also be referred to as the congenital malformations. These conditions are pre birth and can only be visible or noticed post the birth of the child. These anomalies are growing every day even after the excessive development of modern medical science. Some of these diseases can be treated surgically and the rest can be by non surgical means. The worst of the sufferers are people belonging from the lower and middle income groups. The World health organization has estimated more than 6% of the babies to be born with the prenatal deformities. But the actual number of the kids suffering is far too much than the estimated percentage. The congenital anomalies are the main reason for the rise in the number of diseases around the globe and a large number of new generations of population are born with deformities hence resulting in incapable or less capable people in the society. There are many non-surgically treatable diseases but the poor countries do not have the facilities to treat reversible conditions such as clubfoot, leading to long lasting effects. 94% of the congenital anomalies occur in the poor or in the middle income countries.


  • Chromosomal defect: It is caused by an alteration in the number of the chromosomes.
  • Gene defect: It is caused by a problem in the structure of the chromosome such as Down syndrome.
  • Dominant inheritance: When one of the parents contributes a single faulty gene such as in the case of the Achondroplasia and Marfan syndrome.
  • Micronutrient Deficiencies: Micronutrients are extremely essential for pregnant ladies and if the lady is not given proper micronutrient, then this causes the micronutrient deficiency.
  • Mutation: A point mutation is one of the major contributors for the prenatal abnormalities in the child.
  • Young Pregnant: When the young girls get married at the age of 14-15 years and get pregnant before their body becomes sexually mature enough to carry a baby in the womb, cause various deformities in the child as the young mother is not able to provide proper nourishment and environment to the child in the womb.

External Congenital anomalies:

  • Neural tube defects
  • Microcephaly
  • Microtia
  • Orofacial cleft
  • Exomphalos
  • Reduction defect of upper and lower limb

Internal Congenital anomalies:

  • Congenital heart disease
  • Esophageal atresia
  • Large intestinal atresia
  • Anorectal atresia
  • Renal agenesis 


  • Physiotherapy: Physiotherapy at the time of pregnancy helps the body to remain healthy and helps in proper functioning, in order to provide nourishment to the child.
  • Stop smoking:  Smoking should absolutely be stopped during pregnancy because it lowers the birth weight of the child and it might result in an asthmatic child.
  • Healthy diet: Having a proper healthy and balanced diet is extremely important. As, it provides proper health of the prenatal child.
  • No exposure to drug and alcohol: Having alcohol or drug during the pregnancy results in various deformities to the child.
  • Folic acid: Having 400 micrograms of the folic acid each day, it helps to lower risk of neural tube defect, birth defect of brain or spinal cord.

Why Eternal Hospital?
At Eternal Hospital, we have a highly qualified and dedicated team of Pediatrics who are always committed to providing the latest and most advanced medical care to all our patients. Being a trusted name in healthcare, we act compassionately while ensuring confidentiality to those who need it. We have set high standards in patient-centric premium care and outstanding patient safety, and exceptional maintenance in a timely manner. In addition, we adhere to the use of up-to-the-minute innovations to offer state-of-the-art treatments to our patients with unparalleled results.

Meet Our Team

Dr. Shiv Dayal Sharma

Director Paediatrics and Neonatology