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Nephrology is a medical super specialty that deals with the functioning of and diseases related to the kidney. Kidneys are the sophisticated filtering units of the body. On an average, the kidneys of a healthy adult process about 180 litres of blood daily to dispose the extra water and waste material in the form of urine. Any alteration or dysfunction in the anatomy or the physiology of the kidney can cause acute or chronic renal (kidney) diseases which can seriously affect the functioning of the entire body.

Our nephrologists strive to deliver the best possible care to patients suffering from acute or chronic kidney diseases.

  • Kidney Disorders
  • Dialysis
  • Kidney Transplant
  • Kidney Stones
The nephrology team has significant experience in performing all kinds of procedures like: 
  • Acute (sudden onset) renal diseases
  • Chronic (slow ongoing decline in renal function) renal diseases
  • Renal damage due to high blood pressure, diabetes, infections, tubulo-interstitial disorders, glomerular diseases
  • Blood in urine (hematuria)
  • Protein loss in urine (proteinuria)
  • Electrolyte or acid-base imbalance
  • Chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection
  • Hereditary renal disorders
  • Renovascular Diseases
  • Kidney Transplant
  • Cadaveric Renal Transplantation
  • Dialysis access procedures (Jugular & Femoral Catheterization)

People with failed or damaged kidneys may have difficulty eliminating waste and unwanted water from the blood. Dialysis is an artificial way of carrying out this process.

Dialysis substitutes the natural work of the kidneys, so it is also known as Renal Replacement therapy (RRT).

Healthy kidneys regulate the body’s levels of water and minerals and remove waste. The kidneys also secrete certain products that are important in metabolism, but dialysis cannot do this.

It is recommended that you start dialysis when your kidney function drops to 15% or less — or if you have severe symptoms caused by your kidney disease, such as: shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle cramps, nausea or vomiting. Your doctor will help you decide when to start dialysis, based on the results of lab tests that measure how much kidney function you have left and also your symptoms.

There are two types of dialysis – Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis.

  • Haemodialysis uses an artificial filter through which blood is circulated with the help of a haemodialysis machine.
  • Peritoneal Dialysis uses the peritoneal membrane in the abdomen as the filter. The process entails instillation, dwelling and removal of a special fluid with the help of a catheter placed in the abdomen.

Kidney transplantation involves surgical placement of a functional kidney from a living or a deceased donor into a patient with advanced kidney failure. Successful kidney transplantation remarkably improves the quality of life albeit with life-long medications to reduce the chances of rejection.

Kidney stones (renal lithiasis) are small, hard deposits that form inside your kidneys. The stones are made of mineral and acid salts. Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.

Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage. Depending on patient’s situation, he/she may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone. In other instances, surgery may be needed. Doctor may recommend preventive treatment to reduce risk of recurrent kidney stones if patient is at increased risk of developing them again.


Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid — than the fluid in your urine can dilute. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that keep crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form.

Factors that increase your risk of developing kidney stones include:

  • Family or personal history: If someone in your family has kidney stones, you're more likely to develop stones, too. And if you've already had one or more kidney stones, you're at increased risk of developing another.
  • Being an adult:  Kidney stones are most common in adults age 40 and older, though kidney stones may occur at any age. Men are more likely to develop kidney stones.
  • Dehydration: Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones. People who live in warm climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.
  • Certain diets: Eating a diet that's high in protein, sodium and sugar may increase your risk of some types of kidney stones. This is especially true with a high-sodium diet. Too much sodium in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys must filter and significantly increases your risk of kidney stones.
  • Being obese: High body mass index (BMI), large waist size and weight gain have been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones.
  • Digestive diseases and surgery: Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhoea can cause changes in the digestive process that affect your absorption of calcium and water, increasing the levels of stone-forming substances in your urine.
  • Other medical conditions: Diseases and conditions that may increase your risk of kidney stones include renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, certain medications and some urinary tract infections

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