Prostatic enlargement [Prostatomegaly / Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy], prostatic tumors are mostly seen in the men over the age group of 50 years. Prostatic infections [Prostatitis] are seen in young men. The symptoms due to these prostatic diseases vary widely from minimal lower urinary tract symptoms to severe bothersome urinary symptoms, blood in urine and urinary retention.
Cancer can affect the kidneys, bladder, prostate, penis and testicles - together these are known as urological cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, exposure to certain industrial chemicals are few of the factors for the cause of this. Most kidney and prostate cancers are found "accidentally" when being investigated for other complaints. However, symptoms like flank pain, flank mass, abnormalities in the external genetalia, blood in urine, other lower urinary track symptoms, weight loss, weakness, bony pains need to be investigated. Surgery will be the gold standard of treatment if identified early and chemotherapy and radiotherapy has a role in the management of urological cancers.
The subspecialty of female urology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of those urinary tract disorders most prevalent in females. These include leakage of urine while coughing or straining, urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, painful urination and/or incomplete bladder emptying, pain in the lower abdomen and/or perineum, recurrent urinary tract infection. Radiological studies and additional bladder studies such as Urodynamic and cystoscopy may be required. Surgical management for SUI is available - TVT, TVTO, sling operations.
Paediatric urology is a sub-specialty of urology that deals with the surgical diseases of the genitourinary tract [kidneys, ureters, bladder, sexual and reproductive organs] in children. We assist in creating awareness among people and help parents to understand the diseases that their children might be suffering from. Some of the urological problems that children encounter include bedwetting and urinary incontinence, undescended testes, hypospadias, stones in the kidney, ureter and bladder, chordae, phimosis, vesicoureteric reflux [VUR], , Neurogenic bladder, tumors of the kidney, ureter and bladder, genitourinary trauma, genitourinary malformations and birth defects including prune belly syndrome, cloacal exstrophy, bladder exstrophy, epispadias, ambiguous genitalia
Kidney stones and ureteric stones can be one of the most painful surgical disorders. Small sized stones pass out of the body without any intervention. Stones that cause lasting symptoms or other complications may be treated by various techniques, most of which do not involve major surgery. They usually present as severe pain in the back and side in the area of the kidney or in the lower abdomen. They also can have nausea and vomiting and lower urinary tract symptoms. The type of treatment depends on symptoms, size, position and composition of the stone. Endo-urological removal of ureteric /renal calculi is the most common treatment option, flexible and rigid ureteroscopy [RIRS + URSL], percutaneous nephrolithotomy [PCNL], LASER, in situ pneumatic fragmentations of the stones are few of the commonly used methods used to remove the stones
Prostatic Diseases Stone Diseases
Problems like pain and burning during urination, increased urination, urgency, urinary leak, poor flow of urine are troublesome and may be due to stones, infection, prostatic enlargement, urethral strictures or infection and cancers.
Advanced prostatic tumors can lead to severe bony pain, severe low back ache and may also lead to weakness of the lower limbs, slowly progressing to paralysis. Most commonly cystoscopy and a transurethral resection of the prostate [TURP] is what is needed for a benign prostatic enlargement.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability of a man to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for his sexual needs or the needs of his partner. Most men experience this at some point in their lives and are not psychologically affected by it. Erectile dysfunction has many causes, most of which are treatable, and is not an inevitable consequence of aging. There are many underlying physical and psychological causes of erectile dysfunction. Often there may be several factors present at the same time. Vascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, renal diseases, neurological disease, smoking, alcohol are few of the causes. After evaluation, treatment options can be oral medications, self-injections, vacuum devices or penile implants depending on the response to treatment.
Female Sexual Dysfunction
Lack of sexual arousal, decrease in libido, painful intercourse, and delayed orgasm are few of the common presentations in married women.