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Lung Cancer- Diagnosis and Staging


Lung cancer is a progressive disease marked by the unhealthy multiplication and accumulation of malignant cells in the lungs that gradually replace all the healthy tissues, thereby disrupting its normal function. The disease is aggressive in nature and requires immediate medical intervention. Treatment for lung cancer is offered by all the top-notch pulmonology hospitals in Jaipur.

The lungs are a part of the respiratory system and their normal functioning is vital for our existence. Lung cancer is a very common type of cancer and can be both primary as well as metastatic. The former develops in the lungs itself whereas the latter is a result of metastasis of cancer cells to the lungs from some other primary site of origin. The problem can affect people of all age groups and gender and is usually associated with excessive smoking, both active and passive.

What are the common symptoms associated with lung cancer?

You will be surprised to know that a patient suffering from lung cancer does not experience any major symptoms in the early stages and this is the reason why the condition is more likely to go undetected initially. The symptoms develop gradually and worsen over time. Some of the common symptoms associated with lung cancer, as suggested by the best doctors in Jaipur include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Change in the person’s voice
  • Hoarseness
  • Persistent coughing and wheezing
  • Breathlessness
  • Frequent headaches
  • Loss of weight
  • General body weakness and fatigue
  • Severe musculoskeletal pain
  • Traces of blood in saliva
  • Severe pain in the chest

How is the problem diagnosed?

Early diagnosis of cancer can help you to seek immediate treatment. This negates most of the risks and complications which are usually associated with end-stage lung cancer as well as increase the success rate of the treatment. Some of the common diagnostic techniques recommended by doctors include:

  • Imaging tests- This is the umbrella term used for various tests like Computed Tomography (CT) scan, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan to detect an abnormal mass, lesion or lump in the lungs. The tests help the doctors to view the internal organs and other structures without actually accessing them.
  • Sputum cytology- It involves the microscopic examination of the patient’s sputum to detect the presence of malignant cells.
  • Biopsy- biopsy involves the collection of tissue samples from the lungs and keenly observing them to detect any abnormality. A biopsy is usually recommended by the doctors if they detect lesions in the patient’s lungs. The doctors can resort to a number of different approaches to collect the samples. The most common of these is Bronchoscopy, followed by mediastinoscopy.
  • Thoracoscopy- It is a minimally invasive surgical procedure carried out with the help of a thoracoscope to have a thorough look at the lung and the surrounding space and structures. It also helps the doctors to collect tissue samples from the suspected areas. The procedure is used widely for the staging of lung cancer. Thoracoscopy cost in Jaipur is comparatively cheaper than other places.

How is cancer staged?

As mentioned earlier, the staging of lung cancer is done by thoracoscopy. This is quite important as it helps to determine the proper treatment plan that will yield maximum benefits for a particular patient. Lung cancer is staged depending upon the size of the tumour and how far cancer has spread. The various stages of lung cancer include:

Occult or hidden stage – the tumour is not visible and the patient experiences no symptoms.

Stage I – Cancer cells can be found in the upper layers of airways.

Stage II –The tumour has developed but the cancer is localized.

Stage III – Cancer has spread locally and reached the lymph nodes.

Stage IV –Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and other parts of the lungs.

Stage V – Cancer has metastasized to the whole body.

Tags: Pulmonology Hospital, Thoracoscopy Cost in Jaipur, Doctor in Jaipur, Lung Cancer, Eternal Hospital