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Understanding Kidney Diseases: 5 Common Types

Kidney diseases, commonly known as renal diseases, is an umbrella term used for various conditions that specifically affect the kidneys and hinder their normal functioning. The kidneys, as we all know, are a pair of bean-shaped organs that form an important part of the excretory system. These are responsible for the regulating various metabolic processes, balancing healthy pHlevels and filtering out toxins and impurities from the blood, which are then thrown out of the body along with the urine.

As per the best nephrologist doctor in Jaipur, kidney diseases can affect people of any age group and gender and may be a result of some pertaining or underlying medical condition. If left untreated, such diseases can give rise to other complications and even call for the need for dialysis or kidney transplant.

Common symptoms:

  • Some of the common symptoms associated with kidney disease include:
  • Fatigue and clumsiness
  • General body weakness
  • Difficulty with sleeping
  • Loss of appetite and feeling full after eating very little
  • Frequent muscle cramping
  • Swelling in the lower limbs due to fluid retention
  • Puffy eyes
  • Dryness and scaling of the skin
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Anaemia
  • Decreased sex drive
  • Hyperkalaemia or elevated potassium levels in the body

Major risk factors:

Doctors from the best kidney hospitals in India suggest that certain factors can elevate the risks of developing kidney disease. These include:

  • Hypertension or high blood pressure
  • Diabetes or elevated sugar levels in the body
  • Old age
  • History of some chronic kidney disease
  • Excessive smoking and consumption of alcohol
  • Obesity

5 common kidney diseases that can affect anyone:

Here is a list of 5 common kidney diseases that are quite prevalent nowadays:

1. Kidney Cancer – Also known as renal cancer, it is a serious condition triggered by the abnormal multiplication of cells in the kidney which eventually lead to the formation of a malignant mass or lump known as a tumour. The cancerous cells gradually replace all the healthy tissue and the kidney becomes dysfunctional. Studies have shown that the problem is more likely to affect males as compared to females and may even be genetic. Some of the common treatment options offered at the best hospitals in Rajasthan include:

  • Non-invasive procedures like embolization and cryoablation.
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Kidney transplant

2. Kidney stones – This is also a very common renal problem marked by the accumulation of minerals and various other substances in the kidneys that crystalize to form solid stone-like structures. The problem is more common in males, especially those lying in the age group of 30 to 50 years. While smaller stones are not usually painful and are easily passed along with the urine, larger stones can get stuck in the urethra and lead to severe obstruction. In such cases, the patients might even require a surgery which is offered at all the top-notch Urology Surgery hospital in India.

3. Glomerulonephritis– It is a renal condition marked by severe inflammation in the glomeruli i.e. small structures present inside the kidney which are responsible for the filtration of the blood. The condition can be acute or chronic and is marked by haematuria, proteinuria, hypertension and oedema. Glomerulonephritis can be the result of an infection, drug abuse, immune disorder or congenital abnormality.

4. Polycystic kidney disease – It is an inherited disorder marked by the formation of multiple cysts in the kidneys, as a result of which the kidneys become enlarged and are not able to carry out their functions properly. If not treated promptly, the problem can give rise to serious complications.

5. Urinary tract infection– Commonly known as UTI, this is caused by bacteria and is most likely to affect the bladder and the urethra. The problem can with treated by simple medication and practising good hygiene. If left untreated for long, the infection can spread to the kidneys.

Tags: Urology Surgery, Kidney Hospital in India, Nephrologist in Jaipur, Hospital in Rajasthan, Eternal Hospital