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The nervous system is a complex, highly developed system that controls and coordinates body activities. It is made up of two major divisions, including the central nervous system (which consists of the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system(which consists of all other neural elements, including the peripheral nerves and the autonomic nerves).  In addition to the brain and spinal cord, principal organs of the nervous system include eyes, ears, sensory organs of taste, sensory organs of smell, and sensory receptors located in the joints, muscles, skin, and other parts of the body. Any injury, infection,  or damage occurring to the nervous system will result in neurological disorders. 

The most common symptoms of neurological disorders include persistent or sudden onset of headache, numbness, loss of feeling or tingling, weakness or loss of muscle strength, loss of vision or double vision, memory loss, impaired mental status, lack of coordination, rigidity of muscles, seizures or tremors, back pain which radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body, slurring of speech, muscle wasting, expression or comprehension impairment.

The best method to manage neurological conditions is to consult a healthcare professional on time. Neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychologists, psychiatrists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, and physiatrists will help you to overcome these symptoms.

What Are Neurological Disorders?

Neurological disorders are a group of conditions affecting the central and peripheral nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and nerves). Such disorders can happen as a result of structural, chemical, or electrical abnormalities within the nervous system. Numerous body functions are under the control of the nervous system. An individual may have trouble with any of the following, depending on which area of the nervous system is affected by the neurological condition:

What Are The Causes Of Neurological Disorders?

Various factors lead to the development of neurological disorders. The common causes are:

5 Neurological Disorder Symptoms

The following are the 5 common neurological conditions:

1. Headache:

A headache is the most common form of pain experienced by many people. Stress, lack of sleep, skipping meals, alcohol consumption, and exposure to allergens trigger the chances of developing headaches. Tension headaches, migraine headaches, cluster headaches, new daily persistent headaches, dehydration headaches, sinus headaches, and medication overuse headaches are the common types of headaches.
The symptoms of headache include:

  • Slow onset of pain in the head
  • Pain in one side or both sides of your head
  • Pain radiates to the back part of the head or neck
  • A feeling of a noise or vibration around your head

Associated symptoms include nausea, vomiting, weakness, loss of appetite, vision problems, and sensitivity to light
In general situations, headaches can be managed by home care. Taking over-the-counter medicines helps to relieve pain. However, some headaches can signal a more serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. Consult a healthcare provider if you experience the following conditions:

  • Regular headaches occurring more than 15 times a month
  • A severe headache with sudden onset
  • A headache following a blow to the head
  • Headache is associated with conditions like fever, stiffness in the neck, pain in the ears or eyes, confusion, seizures, personality changes, headache that starts early in the morning, vomiting without nausea, loss of consciousness etc.

Stress management, treating the underlying condition, medications, and biofeedback methods help with the management of headaches. 

2. Epilepsy or Seizures:

Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes recurring seizures. There are different types of epilepsy. In some people, the cause can be identified while in others, the cause is not known. Genetic influences,  head trauma, infections in the brain, injury before birth, developmental conditions, brain tumors, and lack of oxygen during birth are considered the common causes of developing epilepsy. Seizure symptoms vary depending on the type of seizure. The common symptoms of epilepsy include:

  • Stiffness of muscles
  • Temporary confusions
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs.
  • A staring spell
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Psychological symptoms such as fear, anxiety or deja vu
  • Some people show behavioral changes or psychosis

What are the types of seizure and their symptoms?

There are 2 main types of seizures such as generalized seizures which affect both sides of the brain and focal seizures which affect only one specific area of the brain.
The following are the 2 types of generalized seizures:

  • Absence seizure: The symptoms include rapid blinking or staring into space
  • Tonic-clonic seizure: The symptoms include crying out, muscle jerks and muscle spasms, falling to the ground, loss of consciousness

The following are the 3 types of focal seizures:

  • Simple focal seizure: The symptoms can cause twitching and feeling of an unusual smell or taste
  • Complex focal seizure: The symptoms include confusion and disorientation
  • Secondary generalized seizure: In this type of seizure, a focal seizure is accompanied by a generalized seizure.

Contact your doctor immediately if any of the following conditions occur along with a seizure:

  • The seizure lasts for more than 5 minutes of time
  • Unable to breathe or loss of consciousness even after the seizure stops
  • Occurrence of a second seizure soon after the first episode
  • High fever
  • If you are injuring yourself during a seizure
  • Persistence of seizure episodes even after taking anti-seizure medicines
  • If you are pregnant
  • If you have high blood sugar levels (diabetes

Management of seizures:

Treatment can help people diagnosed with epilepsy have fewer seizures or even completely stop having seizures. Management involves taking anti-epileptic medications, managing stress levels, getting an adequate amount of sleep, monitoring the episodes of seizures and seizure triggers, exercising regularly, maintaining a well-balanced diet and in extreme cases surgery.

3. Alzheimer’s Disease And Dementia:

Dementia refers to a group of diseases that affect memory, thinking, and the ability to perform daily activities. It is caused by a variety of diseases and injuries that affect the brain. Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent form of dementia which may contribute to 60–70% of cases. Dementia is currently the seventh leading cause of death and one of the major causes of disability and dependency among the elderly globally.
The following are the signs and symptoms of dementia:

  • Forgetting things or recent events
  • Misplacing or losing things
  • Getting lost in between walking or driving
  • Getting confused often, even in familiar places
  • Inability to make decisions or solve problems
  • Losing track of time
  • Repeating the questions
  • Wandering and losing
  • Trouble in finding words during conversation
  • Inability to perform familiar tasks
  • Misjudging distances to objects visually
  • Feeling sad, angry or anxious regarding memory loss
  • Inappropriate behavior and changes in personality
  • Being less interested in other people’s emotions
  • Tendency to step back from the crowd or from social activities

Alzheimer's disease does not have any treatment to cure completely. However, recent research updates from the Alzheimer’s Association state that the drug aducanumab (Aduhelm) is reasonably likely to reduce the decline in brain function among people living with early stages of Alzheimer's disease. 

4. Parkinson’s Disease:

Parkinson’s disease (PD)  is a neurological condition in which a part of the brain deteriorates, causing more severe symptoms over time. While this condition is best known for how it affects muscle control, balance and movement, it can also cause a wide range of other effects on your senses, thinking ability, mental health and more. It is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease
The following are the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease:

  • Rhythmic shaking (tremor) of the body parts even at rest
  • Slowed movements (bradykinesia) and muscle weakness
  • Rigidity and stiffness of the muscles that in turn cause pain and reduced range of motion
  • Impaired posture and balance
  • Abnormality in speech
  • Difficulty to write
  • Loss of automatic movements
  • Blinking less often than usual
  • Drooling
  • Loss of facial expression or mask-like expression
  • Difficulty in swallowing

Parkinson's disease is not curable, but the treatment helps to lessen the severity of the symptoms. Medications are the primary way to treat this condition. A second treatment option is deep brain stimulation (surgery to implant a device that will deliver a mild electrical current to part of your brain). Speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and diet therapy also help to minimize the symptoms. In addition to these,  there are some experimental options, such as stem cell-based treatments, but their availability often varies, and many aren’t an option for people with Parkinson’s disease.

5. Stroke:

A stroke is a medical disorder that arises when a portion of the brain's blood flow is stopped. The damaged area's brain cells lack the essential oxygen and nutrients they require to operate and survive when there is inadequate blood flow. There are three different types of stroke such as ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and transient ischemic attack. 
The following are the signs and symptoms of a stroke:

  • Confusions
  • Headache without any known cause
  • Difficulty in speaking and understanding speech
  • Vision abnormalities in one or both eyes
  • Numbness and weakness of the face, arm, and leg mainly on one side of the body
  • Difficulty in walking
  • Dizziness
  • Loss of body balance
  • Lack of coordination

The treatment of stroke depends upon the type of stroke you had and on how quickly the person visits the hospital. Various treatment methods include medications ((antiplatelet medications, anticoagulant medications, antihypertensive medications), thrombolysis, thrombectomy, and surgery at severe stages.


Conditions affecting the central and peripheral nerve systems are referred to as neurological disorders. Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, headaches, strokes, and Alzheimer's disease are a few common neurological illnesses. Each of these disorders has a unique set of origins, symptoms, and therapies that impact various parts of the nervous system. A neurological condition's symptoms should be seen by a doctor for a proper diagnosis and suitable therapy. Individuals who encounter abrupt and intense symptoms have to get emergency care.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q: How to improve neurological disorders?

A: Physical activity helps to improve mobility, reduce spasticity, increase muscle strength, and promote overall well‐being for individuals with neurological conditions. These exercises include a combination of aerobic exercises, strength training, flexibility exercises, and balance and coordination activities.  

Q: How do you know if you have a neurological disorder?

A: You may be suspected to have neurological disorders if you are experiencing sudden or persistent headaches, if you experience numbness, shivering or tingling in body parts, or if you are feeling loss of muscle strength or weakness. Other symptoms include loss of vision or double vision, memory loss, impaired mental status, lack of coordination, rigidity of muscles, seizures or tremors, back pain which radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body, slurring of speech, muscle wasting, expression or comprehension impairment. consult a doctor if you experience any of these symptoms.

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