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A surgical procedure performed to repair or enhance heart function is known as heart surgery. It can resolve issues that you either develop over time or that you are born with. These can include blockages as well as structural or cardiac rhythm problems. The type of surgery you receive is determined by the problem you have.

Other congenital and acquired heart diseases could now be surgically treated with the development of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass. Accompanying these successes were developments in aortic surgery. The treatment of coronary heart disease was significantly aided by the development of coronary artery bypass grafting. We have arrived at this point in time of cardiac care advancement through cardiac transplantation, attempts to transplant the entire artificial heart, and the use of ventricular assist devices.

Not all heart-related issues are treated with surgery. Medications, nonsurgical procedures, or changes in lifestyle can sometimes be used to treat them. For instance, catheter ablation stops abnormal electrical signals from passing through your heart by using energy to create tiny scars in the tissue surrounding your heart. A stent is placed into a constricted or blocked coronary artery to hold it open during a minimally invasive procedure called coronary angioplasty.

However, conditions like heart failure, plaque accumulation that partially or completely obstructs coronary artery blood flow, malfunctioning heart valves, dilated or diseased major blood vessels (like the aorta), and irregular cardiac rhythms generally require surgery. Let’s learn more about cardiac surgery in this article.

What is Cardiac Surgery?

Any surgical procedure involving your heart or the blood vessels that supply it is referred to as heart surgery. Due to its complexity, heart surgery requires specific expertise and skills of cardiac surgeons. It's a significant event that can revitalize your life by enhancing blood circulation and heart functioning.

Surgery to repair your heart can address congenital heart disease, a condition you were born with. Later-life problems can also be resolved by it. Your specific underlying issue or set of issues will determine the kind of heart surgery you need. Cardiac surgery is also known as heart surgery or cardiovascular surgery.

When other treatments have failed or are not effective, heart surgery may be necessary to treat specific cardiac conditions. Heart surgery might be a medical emergency in specific circumstances. For instance, immediate surgery might be required for a severe heart attack. In certain situations, heart surgery can be scheduled in advance. Major operations such as heart bypass surgery are performed to treat blocked arteries in the heart. Certain cardiac procedures, like implanting a pacemaker, are the subject of minor surgeries.

What Conditions Does Heart Surgery Treat?

S. No.

What conditions does heart surgery treat?

What does heart surgery do?


Coronary artery disease (CAD) - when the arteries supplying blood to your heart muscle become narrowed or blocked by a sticky substance called plaque.

A new channel is created for blood to pass through the heart's artery that is blocked. This procedure is known as a heart bypass or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). It is the most common adult cardiac surgery.


Heart valve diseases - issues with the valves in your heart that regulate blood flow.

Repairs heart valves.


Arrhythmia - issues relating to your heart's rhythm or rate. These result from modifications to the electrical impulses that regulate your heartbeat. It uses tiny incisions in the heart muscle to treat atrial fibrillation. The incisions leave scars that create a pathway for electrical signals coming from the heart (Maze surgery).

Place a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in the chest to correct your heartbeat.


Heart failure - when the heart is not strong enough to pump enough blood that is rich in oxygen to meet your body's needs. A pacemaker (ICD) is implanted to prevent sudden cardiac arrest.

Place a device in the chest.


Heart aneurysm - an artery wall bulge that resembles a balloon. If the aneurysm tears or bursts, it may be fatal.

A fabric tube or patch is used to replace or repair the weak section of a heart artery.


Angina - coronary artery disease-related chest pain.

Tiny channels through a portion of the heart muscle is created using a laser (transmyocardial laser revascularization).


Damaged and abnormal heart structures, including congenital heart defects - birth defects related to the structure of the heart.

The defects in the development of the heart and blood vessels, as well as heart damage are repaired. The type of damage or defect determines the necessary repairs.


Types of Cardiac Surgery

Following are the types of cardiac surgery:

  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): The most common kind of heart surgery, CABG, involves connecting a healthy vein or artery from another part of your body to the blocked coronary artery in order to supply blood past it.
  • Heart valve repair or replacement: Surgeons may opt to replace the valve with a biological valve derived from human, pig, or cow heart tissue, or they can repair the valve entirely.
  • Insertion of a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD): If taking medication is ineffective, a pacemaker with wires connecting it to the heart chambers may be implanted by a surgeon under the skin of the chest or abdomen. When a sensor determines that the heart rhythm is abnormal, the device uses electrical pulses to regulate it. 
  • Maze surgery: The procedure involves the surgeon making an arrangement of scar tissue in the heart's upper chambers in order to reroute electrical impulses to the lower chambers in a precise manner. The procedure suppresses the atrial fibrillation-causing stray electrical signals.
  • Aneurysm repair: To fix a balloon-like bulge in the heart muscle or artery, a weak section of the wall or artery is replaced with a patch or graft.
  • Heart transplant: A healthy heart from a deceased donor is used to replace the damaged heart.
  • Insertion of a ventricular assist device (VAD) or total artificial heart (TAH): A mechanical pump called a VAD helps blood flow and heart function. The two lower chambers of the heart are replaced with a TAH.


A heart surgery can change your life and the lives of those you love. Spend some time learning more about the surgery you require and your medical condition. Ask any questions you may have during your conversation with the doctor who treats you.
If you want the best solution for your heart issues, then consult expert cardiologists at Eternal Hospital. Book your consultation now.


Q1: Which cardiology procedure is the most common?

A: The most common kind of heart surgery is CABG.

Q2: Which heart surgery is the latest?

A: Robotic cardiac surgery involves making very tiny incisions in the chest to operate on the heart. Surgeons can perform much less invasive heart surgery than open heart surgery by using tiny instruments and robot-controlled tools.

Q3: Which kind of cardiac surgery is the most challenging?

A: Heart bypass surgery is a difficult process that takes a long time to prepare for and recover from.

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